Bauman, R. (1977). Verbal Art as Performance. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press. (ARTICLE)
Performance to Bauman: The term performance was employed there, as it was by several of contributors to the collection, because it conveyed a dual sense of artistic action-the do of folklore-and artistic event-the performance situation, involving performer, art for audience, and setting-both of which are central to the developing performance approach folklore.
Verbal art has for too long been cateogorized as “overwhelmingly to be constructed in terms of special us formal features within texts”. 291
Verbal art that is text centered.
292- A performance-centered conception of verbal art calls for an approach through performance itself. In such an approach, the for secondary to the nature of performance, per se communication.
293- performance as a mode of spoken verbal communication consists in the assumption of responsibility to an audience for a display of communicative competence
294- The point to be emphasized here is that just as speaking itself as a cultural system (or as part of cultural systems defined in other terms) will vary from speech community to speech community, so too will the nature and extent of the realm of performance and verbal art (Bauman 1972b).
295- the frame is keyed; goffman reference
Reframing verbal art as performance gives us more range for intensity (297)
298- We view the act of performance as situated behavior, situated within and rendered meaningful with reference to relevant contexts. Such contexts may be identified at a variety of levels-in terms of settings, for example, the culturally-defined places where performance occurs. Institutions too-religion, education, politics-may be viewed from the perspective of the way in which they do or do not represent contexts for performance within communities. Most important as an organizing principle in the ethnography of performance is the event, or scene, within which performance occurs (see, e.g., Kirshenblatt-Gimblett 1974)
The emergent quality of performance helps explain the uniqueness of it. Emergence could address the structure of the text, event, or social structure (304).